Technology isn’t working
The digital revolution has yet to fulfil its promise of higher productivity and better jobs
If there is a technological revolution in progress, rich economies could be forgiven for wishing it would go away. Workers in America, Europe and Japan have been through a difficult few decades. In the 1970s the blistering growth after the second world war vanished in both Europe and America. In the early 1990s Japan joined the slump, entering a prolonged period of economic stagnation. Brief spells of faster growth in intervening years quickly petered out. The rich world is still trying to shake off the effects of the 2008 financial crisis. And now the digital economy, far from pushing up wages across the board in response to higher productivity, is keeping them flat for the mass of workers while extravagantly rewarding the most talented ones.
It seems difficult to square this unhappy experience with the extraordinary technological progress during that period, but the same thing has happened before. Most economic historians reckon there was very little improvement in living standards in Britain in the century after the first Industrial Revolution. And in the early 20th century, as Victorian inventions such as electric lighting came into their own, productivity growth was every bit as slow as it has been in recent decades.
De acordo com o texto, os efeitos da tecnologia notados na América, Europa e Japão
- A foram positivos para a grande maioria dos trabalhadores, considerando o aumento ocorrido em seus salários.
- B foram positivos para a grande maioria dos trabalhadores, considerando a melhora nas condições de segurança no trabalho.
- C ficaram aquém das expectativas em termos de aumento de produtividade, mas foram satisfatórios com relação a melhores empregos.
- D ficaram aquém das expectativas em termos de melhores empregos, mas superaram as expectativas com relação à produtividade.
- E ficaram aquém das expectativas em termos de aumento da produtividade e de melhores empregos.